Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia (NPS) include a group of noncognitive symptoms and behaviors that are seen in over 90% of individuals with dementia during the course of the illness.
1NPS are unsafe, disruptive, and impair the care of the individual with dementia. Apathy is the most common NPS in Alzheimer's disease (AD), depression is the most common NPS in vascular dementia (VaD), anxiety is the most common NPS in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and agitation and aggression are the most common NPS among individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). NPS is associated with a faster progression of the illness and greater morbidity and mortality rates among individuals with dementia. Additionally, the presence of NPS significantly increases the caregiver burden and the overall cost of caring for individuals with dementia. The neurobiology of NPS indicates a complex interplay between biological, genetic, psychological, social, and environmental factors.
- Tampi RR
- Jeste DV
Dementia is more than memory loss: neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia and their nonpharmacological and pharmacological management.
Am J Psychiatry. 2022; 179: 528-543
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Published online: February 23, 2023
Accepted: February 20, 2023
Received: February 19, 2023
Publication stageIn Press Journal Pre-Proof
© 2023 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.