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Study of Independent Living Residents of a Continuing Care Senior Housing Community: Sociodemographic and Clinical Associations of Cognitive, Physical, and Mental Health

  • Dilip V. Jeste
    Correspondence
    Send correspondence and reprint requests to Dilip V. Jeste, M.D., Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, Mail Code #0664, La Jolla, CA 92161.
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, AMP, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Department of Neurosciences (DVJ), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Danielle Glorioso
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, AMP, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Ellen E. Lee
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, AMP, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Rebecca Daly
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, AMP, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Sarah Graham
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, AMP, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Jinyuan Liu
    Affiliations
    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (JL, CN, XMT), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Alejandra Morlett Paredes
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, AMP, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Camille Nebeker
    Affiliations
    Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (JL, CN, XMT), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Xin M. Tu
    Affiliations
    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (JL, CN, XMT), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Elizabeth W. Twamley
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, AMP, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    VA San Diego Healthcare System (EWT, CD), San Diego
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  • Ryan Van Patten
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, AMP, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Yasunori Yamada
    Affiliations
    Accessibility and Aging (YY), IBM Research-Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Colin Depp
    Affiliations
    Department of Psychiatry (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, AMP, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Sam and Rose Stein Institute for Research on Aging (DVJ, DG, EEL, RD, SG, JL, AMP, XT, EWT, RVP, CD), University of California San Diego, San Diego

    Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (JL, CN, XMT), University of California San Diego, San Diego
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  • Ho-Cheol Kim
    Affiliations
    Scalable Knowledge Intelligence (HCK), IBM Research-Almaden, San Jose, CA
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Published:April 10, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2019.04.002

      Highlights

      • What is the primary question addressed by this study?
        This study examines risk and protective factors that are associated with cognitive, physical and mental health among a community-dwelling sample of older adults in the independent living sector of a continuing care senior housing community.
      • What is the main finding of this study?
        Physical health was correlated with both cognitive function and mental health, but there was no significant correlation between cognitive and mental health. Notably, global cognition, self-rated physical functioning, resilience, and social support were associated with physical health, while resilience, loneliness, and sleep disturbances were associated with mental health.
      • What is the meaning of the finding?
        Interventions to enhance protective factors and reduce risk factors should be considered among strategies to improve health in community-dwelling older adults. Continuing care senior housing communities are important sites for promoting healthy lifestyles.

      Objective

      To examine associations of sociodemographic and clinical factors with cognitive, physical, and mental health among independent living older adults in a continuing care senior housing community (CCSHC).

      Methods

      This was a cross-sectional study at the independent living sector of a CCSHC in San Diego County, California. Participants included English-speaking adults aged 65–95 years, of which two-thirds were women. Of the 112 subjects recruited, 104 completed basic study assessments. The authors computed composite measures of cognitive, physical, and mental health. The authors also assessed relevant clinical correlates including psychosocial factors such as resilience, loneliness, wisdom, and social support.

      Results

      The CCSHC residents were similar to a randomly selected community-based sample of older adults on most standardized clinical measures. In the CCSHC, physical health correlated with both cognitive function and mental health, but there was no significant correlation between cognitive and mental health. Cognitive function was significantly associated with physical mobility, satisfaction with life, and wisdom, whereas physical health was associated with age, self-rated physical functioning, mental well-being, and resilience. Mental health was significantly associated with income, optimism, self-compassion, loneliness, and sleep disturbances.

      Conclusion

      Different psychosocial factors are significantly associated with cognitive, physical, and mental health. Longitudinal studies of diverse samples of older adults are necessary to determine risk factors and protective factors for specific domains of health. With rapidly growing numbers of older adults who require healthcare as well as supportive housing, CCSHCs will become increasingly important sites for studying and promoting the health of older adults.

      Key Words

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