Introduction: Deficits in frontal lobe functions including deficits in working memory are common across all stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Working memory has been found to correlate with frontal cortical oscillations in theta and gamma bands and in particular the modulation of gamma amplitude by theta phase (theta-gamma coupling) in healthy individuals. These neurophysiological mechanisms depend upon robust synaptic neuroplasticity. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) involves repetitive pairing of electrical stimulation of the median nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse to contralateral DLPFC. PAS simulates the induction of long-term potentiation, a prototype of synaptic neuroplasticity. Relevance of these measures of neuroplasticity in AD has not been investigated so far.
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