|Study||Population||Source||Scans, Ligand||Amyloid PET Acquisition and Image Analysis||Regions Reported||Major Findings|
|Rowe et al. 2007||10 DLB|
|AD/DLB: memory disorders and neurobehavioural clinics.|
Controls: from a separate longitudinal study known to have normal cognitive function.
|90 min acquisition. ROI 11C-PIB DVR v. cerebellum. Logan graphical analysis method.||16 cortical and subcortical areas including overall cortex.||PiB burden AD>DLB>HC.|
PiB burden correlated with shorter time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis in DLB.
ApoE4 genotype linked to Aβ burden across groups.
|Edison et al. 200823,|
|Multicenter study (UK, Finland, Australia).||MRI|
|60-90 min 11C-PIB uptake ratio; ROI v. cerebellum.|
Voxel-based comparison with threshold p <0.001.
|6 cortical areas, striatum, thalamus and whole cortex.||DLB more likely to show raised Aβ burden compared with PDD or PD.|
|Gomperts et al. 2008||8 DLB|
|Movement and memory units.|
AD and HC collected separately in another longitudinal study.
|11C-PIB PET||60 min DVR v cerebellum. Logan graphical analysis method.||6 cortical areas, striatum, whole cortex.||PiB binding DLB>PDD/PD/HC.|
PiB binding in DLB comparable to AD.
In LBD (DLB+PDD) relative striatal binding was associated with improved performance on UPDRS.
|Johansson et al. 2008||5 PD|
|AD and HC from previous study.|
PD: not stated.
|40–60 min regional uptake volume of interest v. cerebellum.||5 cortical areas, subcortical white matter, pons, striatum.||PiB retention was greater in AD than PD in all cortical areas and striatum. Lower in PD than control in frontal, parietal and cingulate areas.|
|Maetzler et al. 2008|
|Not stated.||11C-PIB PET||42–72 min ROI SUVR v. cerebellum.||Frontal cortex, posterior cingulate, striatum, thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, white matter||2/10 PDD had “AD-like” pattern of amyloid deposition.|
Brainstem:posteriorcingulate DVR: PDD>control, AD, “AD-like” PD.
|Maetzler et al. 2009||9 DLB|
|Ward/OP dept. in neurodegenerative dept. of a university hospital.||11C-PIB PET||42–72 min ROI SUVR v. cerebellum.||5 cortical areas, whole cortex, striatum.||PiB positive patients had lower CSF Aβ42, higher ApoE4 allele rate, all had dementia. Within dementia, PiB positive had lower MMSE scores.|
|Jokinen et al. 2010||11 PDD|
|University hospital.||11C-PIB PET|
|60–90 min 11C-PIB uptake|
ROI v. cerebellum.
|5 cortical areas, caudate, putamen.||No significant difference between groups in any cortical area. PDD more likely to show 1+ cortical areas with increased PiB uptake.|
|Foster et al. 2010||6 DLB|
|Movement disorders center.||11C-PIB PET|
|60 min dynamic scan. Binding potentials of ROIs and MCBP. Logan graphical analysis, cerebellum as reference.||5 cortical areas, caudate, mean cortex.||No differences in MCBP or regional BPs between groups.|
Correlation between caudate BP/MCBP and MMSE in some groups.
|Burke et al. 2011|
|Cognitive disorders clinic.||11C-PIB PET|
|80 min scan. ROI DVR v. cerebellum. Subjective visual assessment.||Frontal cortex : white matter DVR ratio.||Only moderate concordance between clinical diagnosis and diagnosis based on scan results.|
|Claasen et al. 2011||3 DLB|
|Neurology clinic.||11C-PIB PET|
|40–60 min acquisition. ROI v. cerebellum.||7 cortical areas and caudate.||Higher binding found in DLB in all areas. Most marked in prefrontal, parietal, temporal, and precuneus.|
|Villemagne et al. 2011||7 DLB|
|Memory disorders service, movement disorders clinics.||18F-Florbetaben PET|
|90–110 min acquisition.|
ROI SUVR v. cerebellar cortex
|9 cortical areas, total cortex, 6 non-cortical areas.||AD and MCI had higher neocortical and striatal binding than controls. No other significant differences between groups.|
|Gomperts et al. 2012|
|Movement disorders and memory disorders units. HCS from separate study.||11C-PIB PET||60 min dynamic acquisition. Logan graphical analysis method. ROI DVR v. cerebellum.|
SPM analysis corrected for multiple comparisons (false discovery rate).
|DLB exhibited higher binding than other groups, particularly in frontal and parietal areas. No differences found between non-DLB groups.|
PiB burden increased in ApoE4 genotype across entire cohort.
In DLB increased PiB binding was associated with decreased MMSE score and poorer semantic memory.
|Graff-Radford et al. 2012||7 DLB (of 54 DLB)||AD research center (retrospective study of pts. involved in longitudinal study).||11C-PIB PET|
|40–60 min. ROI v. cerebellum.|
Partial volume correction.
|Global cortical retention.||Both subjects who declined were PiB positive; all 3 subjects who improved were PiB negative.|
|Kantarci et al. 2012||21 DLB|
|DLB recruited from AD research centre. AD and HC from a longitudinal cohort.||11C-PIB PET|
|40–60 min acquisition.|
ROI v. cerebellum.
Voxel based comparison using FWE correction. Partial volume correction.
|Global cortical retention.|
|DLB PiB binding was significantly lower than AD but significantly higher than controls.|
No relationship found between global PiB and motor impairment, dementia rating, visual hallucinations or duration of symptoms.
|Petrou et al. 2012||40 PD at risk for dementia||University-based movement disorders subspecialty clinic.||11C-PIB PET|
|80 min acquisition. Logan graphical analysis method.|
DVR v. cerebellum.
|Mean cortical PiB DVR.|
|Cortical PiB was inversely correlated with overall cognitive score and WAIS score.|
|Ossenkoppele et al. 2013|
|Specialist memory disorder clinic. Patients mostly attending for second/third opinion.||11C-PIB PET|
|90 min dynamic scan. ROI BP v. cerebellum.|
For 12 patients 60–90 min SUVR ROI v. cerebellum.
|Visual assessment.||11C-PIB PET contributed to diagnostic process in 86% of patients, mainly used to rule out AD.|
|Shimada et al. 2013||8 DLB|
|Not stated.||11C-PIB PET|
|90 min dynamic scan. Logan graphical analysis method.|
VOI DVR v. cerebellum.
|Mean cortical PiB DVR.|
4 cortical areas.
|PiB positive LBD subjects demonstrated cortical atrophy compared with HC; greater atrophy in parahippocampal regions than PiB negative LBD subjects.|
|Gomperts et al. 2013||35 PD|
|Not stated.||11C-PIB PET||60 min dynamic scan. Logan graphical analysis method. DVR v. cerebellum.||Precuneus, frontal cortex, and striatum.||Higher PiB retention at baseline associated with progression to MCI or dementia and with deterioration in executive function.|
Motor deterioration not linked to baseline striatal or precuneus amyloid burden.
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
|Study||DLB||PDD||PD||PD-MCI||AD||Control||Method of Classification|
|Edison et al. 2008|
|11||2||2||10||0||10||-||-||-||-||6||41||PiB uptake ratio >2 SD above control mean in 1 or more cortical regions.|
|Gomperts et al. 2008||7||1||7||0||7||4||-||-||15||0||19||18||DVR >1.3 in 50+ cortical voxels.|
|Maetzler et al. 2008|
|Maetzler et al. 2009||4||5||4||8||0||14||-||-||-||-||-||-||SUVR >1.45/<1.38.|
|Jokinen et al. 2010||-||-||3||8||0||8||-||-||-||-||2||22||Cortical SUVR >1.5 in 1 or more cortical regions.|
|Foster et al. 2010||2||4||4||11||1||7||1||8||-||-||1||8||MCBP ≥0.2.|
|Villemagne et al. 2011||2||5||-||-||0||5||-||-||29||1||5||27||SUVR >1.4.|
|Graff-Radford et al. 2012||3||4||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||Global cortical PiB retention ratio >1.5.|
|Kantarci et al. 2012||11||10||-||-||-||-||-||-||19||2||9||33||Global cortical PiB retention ratio >1.5.|
|Petrou et al. 2012||-||-||4||1||0||5||2||28||-||-||-||-||Visual inspection.|
|Ossenkoppele et al. 2013|
|Shimada et al. 2013||4||4||2||5||-||-||-||-||13||0||5||17||DVR >2 SD above HC mean in one or more cortical region.|
Parkinson Disease Dementia
Relationship between Aβ and Clinical Picture
Cognitive impairment and dementia severity
Hallucinations and visuospatial ability
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder
Disease onset, progression, and treatment response
Relationship with genetics, imaging findings, and other biomarkers
Reports of Postmortem Examination After Amyloid PET Imaging
Differences Between Diagnostic Groups
Relationship of Aβ to Clinical Picture
Clinical Use and Diagnostic Utility
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