Advertisement

Does Duration of Spousal Caregiving Affect Risk of Depression Onset? Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study

Published:January 31, 2013DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2013.01.073

      Objectives

      To assess the association of current and long-term spousal caregiving with risk of depression in a nationally (U.S.) representative sample of older adults.

      Methods

      We studied married and depression-free Health and Retirement Study respondents aged 50 years and older (n = 9,420) at baseline from 2000 to 2010. Current (≥14 hours per week of help with instrumental/activities of daily living for a spouse in the most recent biennial survey) and long-term caregiving (care at two consecutive surveys) were used to predict onset of elevated depressive symptoms (≥3 on a modified Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale) with discrete-time hazards models and time-updated exposure and covariate information.

      Results

      Current caregiving was associated with significant elevations in risk of depression onset (hazard ratio: 1.64; Wald χ2, 1 df: 28.34; p <0.0001). Effect estimates for long-term caregiving were similar (hazard ratio: 1.52, Wald χ2, 1 df: 3.63; p = 0.06).

      Conclusions

      Current spousal caregiving significantly predicted onset of depression; the association was not exacerbated by longer duration of caregiving.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Pinquart M.
        • Sörensen S.
        Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: a meta-analysis.
        Psychology and Aging. 2003; 18: 250-267
        • Pinquart M.
        • Sörensen S.
        Associations of stressors and uplifts of caregiving with caregiver burden and depressive mood: a meta-analysis.
        J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2003; 58: P112-P128
        • Heeringa S.G.
        Technical Description of the Asset and Health Dynamics (AHEAD) survey sample.
        Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI1995
        • Jenkins K.R.
        • Kabeto M.U.
        • Langa K.M.
        Does caring for your spouse harm one's health? Evidence from a United States nationally-representative sample of older adults.
        Ageing Soc. 2009; 29: 277-293
        • Turvey C.L.
        • Wallace R.B.
        • Herzog R.
        A revised CES-D measure of depressive symptoms and a DSM-based measure of major depressive episodes in the elderly.
        Int Psychogeriatr. 1999; 11: 139-148
        • Cole S.R.
        • Hernán M.A.
        Constructing inverse probability weights for marginal structural models.
        Am J Epidemiol. 2008; 168: 656-664
        • Haley W.E.
        • LaMonde L.A.
        • Han B.
        • et al.
        Predictors of depression and life satisfaction among spousal caregivers in hospice: application of a stress process model.
        J Palliative Med. 2003; 6: 215-224
        • Li L.W.
        From caregiving to bereavement: trajectories of depressive symptoms among wife and daughter caregivers.
        J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc. 2005; 60: P190-P198
        • Townsend A.
        • Noelker L.
        • Deimling G.
        • et al.
        Longitudinal impact of interhousehold caregiving on adult children's mental health.
        Psychol Aging. 1989; 4: 393-401
        • Capistrant B.D.
        • Moon J.R.
        • Glymour M.M.
        Spousal caregiving and incident hypertension.
        Am J Hypertens. 2012; 25: 437-443